Integral Madness

We’ve seen the calculus version \[ J(x)=\frac{1}{2\pi i}\int_{a-i\infty}^{a+i\infty}\log\zeta(s)x^s\frac{\mathrm{d}s}{s}, \] of the Euler product, and we know how to express \(\xi(s)\) as a product over its roots \[ \xi(s)=\xi(0)\prod_\varrho\left(1-\frac{s}{\varrho}\right), \] where \[ \xi(s) = \frac{1}{2} \pi^{-s/2} s(s-1) \Pi(s/2-1) \zeta(s) \newline = \pi^{-s/2} (s-1) \Pi(s/2) \zeta(s). \] High time we put everything together – the reward will be the long expected explicit formula for counting primes!First, let’s bring the two formulae for \(\xi(s)\) together and rearrange them such that we obtain a formula for \(\zeta(s)\): [Read More]